The Prince stays for life unless he is deposed or removed for suspicion of tyranny. People are re-distributed around the households and towns to keep numbers even. If the island suffers from overpopulation, colonies are set up on the mainland. Alternatively, the natives of the mainland are invited to be part of these Utopian colonies, but if they dislike them and no longer wish to stay they may return. In the case of under-population the colonists are re-called.
There is no private property on Utopia, with goods being stored in warehouses and people requesting what they need. There are also no locks on the doors of the houses, and the houses are rotated between the citizens every ten years.
Agriculture provides the most important occupation on the island. Every person is taught it and must live in the countryside, farming for two years at a time, with women doing the same work as men. Parallel to this, every citizen must learn at least one of the other essential trades: There is deliberate simplicity about these trades; for instance, all people wear the same types of simple clothes and there are no dressmakers making fine apparel.
All able-bodied citizens must work; thus unemployment is eradicated, and the length of the working day can be minimised: More does allow scholars in his society to become the ruling officials or priests, people picked during their primary education for their ability to learn.
All other citizens, however, are encouraged to apply themselves to learning in their leisure time. Slavery is a feature of Utopian life and it is reported that every household has two slaves. The slaves are either from other countries or are the Utopian criminals. These criminals are weighed down with chains made out of gold. The gold is part of the community wealth of the country, and fettering criminals with it or using it for shameful things like chamber pots gives the citizens a healthy dislike of it.
It also makes it difficult to steal as it is in plain view. The wealth, though, is of little importance and is only good for buying commodities from foreign nations or bribing these nations to fight each other. Slaves are periodically released for good behaviour. Jewels are worn by children, who finally give them up as they mature. Other significant innovations of Utopia include: Meals are taken in community dining halls and the job of feeding the population is given to a different household in turn.
Although all are fed the same, Raphael explains that the old and the administrators are given the best of the food. Travel on the island is only permitted with an internal passport and any people found without a passport are, on a first occasion, returned in disgrace, but after a second offence they are placed in slavery.
In addition, there are no lawyers and the law is made deliberately simple, as all should understand it and not leave people in any doubt of what is right and wrong.
There are several religions on the island: Only atheists are despised but allowed in Utopia, as they are seen as representing a danger to the state: They are not banished, but are encouraged to talk out their erroneous beliefs with the priests until they are convinced of their error. Raphael says that through his teachings Christianity was beginning to take hold in Utopia. The toleration of all other religious ideas is enshrined in a universal prayer all the Utopians recite.
Wives are subject to their husbands and husbands are subject to their wives although women are restricted to conducting household tasks for the most part.
Only few widowed women become priests. While all are trained in military arts, women confess their sins to their husbands once a month.
Gambling, hunting, makeup and astrology are all discouraged in Utopia. The role allocated to women in Utopia might, however, have been seen as being more liberal from a contemporary point of view. Utopians do not like to engage in war.
If they feel countries friendly to them have been wronged, they will send military aid, but they try to capture, rather than kill, enemies. They are upset if they achieve victory through bloodshed. The main purpose of war is to achieve that which, if they had achieved already, they would not have gone to war over. Privacy is not regarded as freedom in Utopia; taverns, ale-houses and places for private gatherings are non-existent for the effect of keeping all men in full view, so that they are obliged to behave well.
One of the most troublesome questions about Utopia is Thomas More's reason for writing it. Different social forces invest in this potential and use it to their advantage. When social groups appropriate a particular technology for their own purposes, then social, political and economic systems can change. An example is the role that the invention of the printing press played in transforming European society. The fast-growing availability of digitisation enables many-to-many communication; think of electronic fora and mailing lists to wikis and Facebook, embattled though it might appear right now.
Hence, an increasing number of humans communicate in ways that were not technically possible before. This in turn makes massive self-organisation up to a global scale possible. Just as digitisation — and specifically social media — can work both for emancipation and supervision, for revolution and its suppression, it also allows for the creation of a new mode of production and new types of social relations outside the market-state nexus. What is light knowledge, design becomes global; what is heavy manufacturing is local and shared.
In this commons-based scenario, there are no patent costs to pay, since the digital commons becomes available under commons licences, such as the Creative Commons licences or the General Public License.
For example, in the software realm, the GNU General Public License permits anyone to see, modify and redistribute the code, under the condition that changes are made publicly available and licensed under the same licence.
Further, less transportation of materials is needed, since a considerable part of the manufacturing takes place locally often through upcycling.
Moreover, maintenance is easier and products are designed to last as long as possible. Costs are thus driven down. The design is developed and improved as a global digital commons, while the manufacturing often takes place through shared infrastructures and with local biophysical conditions in mind.
Put simply, this mode of production follows the logic that what is light knowledge, design becomes global, and what is heavy manufacturing is local and shared. This allows for the consideration of the limits and scarcities posed by finite resources, and the organisation of material activities according to participant-defined value systems. For example, the people of Mityal, a rural community in southwest Nepal, needed to electrify their local health clinic. They connected with national and international commons-oriented communities interested in small-scale, off-the-grid wind turbines.
Together, they built a wind turbine based on digital commons of designs and software, using local manufacturing technologies and materials. Training workshops also took place so that the people of Mityal became capable of maintaining the infrastructure themselves. Yet in his opinion, for reasons of scope as well as human conditioning, violent events — wars, revolutions — would have to precede such freedom.
But he might have been wrong about that. CBPP points to the reality of peaceful paths of radical change actually emerging. It might be true that the examples here seem small-scale, bucolic, catering to an Arcadia, a dream-world for Leftie intellectuals. The difference with CBPP is that it takes back, through empowerment, what has already been lost, but via modern means. It makes use of digitisation, at the forefront of technological development, by interpreting it for the benefit of the people, rather than for its current protagonists.
Creating public rather than private value, CBPP follows the digital logic just as much as, and maybe better than, its classic-capitalist protagonists in Silicon Valley and elsewhere. Perhaps it is best to think of these CBPP as early pilot projects, with a great radical change in our attitude to production possibly just around the corner. The danger, were such a path to be fully co-opted by the current very dominant context, is obvious, and it must realistically be acknowledged.
If you profit from an economic model on a large scale, if you draw your rents from it, why would you not fight for it, even when this is not good for anyone else? However, the counterculture is not only here, it is gaining ground, so far. Were Morris alive today, he certainly would have recognised its revolutionary potential. What was news from nowhere in could very soon be news from here. Donate now Help keep us free. About Donate Newsletter Facebook. Become a Friend of Aeon to save articles and enjoy other exclusive benefits Support Aeon.
Commons craft; detail of a plywood farmhouse, built using a CNC machine. Support Aeon Donate now. In politics, facts take a back seat to whatever perceptions happen to get cemented early. For all of these reasons, EntryPoint might be the best bet for any city who wants fiber but also wants to avoid political risk. I have to take some time to dissect the many, many ways in which they fall into decades-old failing arguments and end up doing little more than parroting the kind of tripe the Utah Taxpayers Association has shoveled since the very beginning.
First, they start off with a few paragraphs talking about 5G wireless. Remember when everyone told us that 4G LTE deployments would eradicate the need for wired Internet service at all? Or that WiFi would do the same thing? Yet here we are, two decades after It lives on short-range frequencies that require deploying a ton of infrastructure to support.
And, surprise, a big part of that is fiber to each one of the access points. Then they declare that bonding to finish construction puts Orem in deep financial trouble. The latest news about the UIA is that it even generates revenues in excess of the bond costs, a net positive. So, seriously, where is the downside when the worst case scenario is break even? But what is fiber if not infrastructure?
Utopia of Usurers is divided into two major parts. The second part is an assemblage of the author's journalistic articles. In the first part, G.K. Chesterton takes to task the theories, claims, and pragmatic fallout of unrestrained capitalism.
Sexual Utopia in Power [F. Roger Devlin] on awaywell.gq *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Like many political revolutions, the sexual revolution of the s began with a euphoric feeling of liberation. But when utopian programs clash with dissenters-and with reality itself-the result is chaos.
Utopia (Libellus vere aureus, nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia) is a work of fiction and socio-political satire by Thomas More (–) published in in awaywell.gq book is a frame narrative primarily depicting a fictional island society and its religious, social and political customs. Many aspects of More's description of Utopia. Utopia now In William Morris imagined a world free from wage slavery. Thanks to technology, his vision is finally within reach Vasilis Kostakis & Wolfgang Drechsler.
EntryPoint Networks is not a household name, but their successful municipal fiber project in Ammon, ID certainly is. With 75% of served residents taking service for as low as $43/mo for M/M, Ammon stands as a poster child for how to get municipal fiber right on political, financial, and technology sides. Psychology. Laziness is a habit rather than a mental health issue. It may reflect a lack of self-esteem, a lack of positive recognition by others, a lack of discipline stemming from low self-confidence, or a lack of interest in the activity or belief in its efficacy. Laziness may manifest as procrastination or vacillation.