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Citing Quotes in a Paper

How To Write a Research Paper

❶This hand-out covers the reasons for and guidelines to summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting in research papers. Simply put the paraphrase is when you read another authors work and put it into your own words.

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Using Quotations in Research Papers
How to Insert Quotations in a Research Paper MLA Style thumbnail

When paraphrasing quotes, change at least 50 percent of the sentence, use a thesaurus for help, make sure you understand the content and avoid looking at the quote. However, even while paraphrasing, make sure you cite your source properly! Read on for another quiz question. This is when you use ellipses Ellipses can be used before, after, or in the center of a quote. Use them to out words that you feel add unnecessary length to the statement without adding value.

You can include brackets in a quote to give a few words, typically the name of a person or place, to help the reader understand the context. Include brackets only when it is absolutely necessary for the reader to understand the quote. Direct quotes only need quotation marks. When using a direct quote, it is imperative that you copy it word for word.

Include all spelling and grammatical mistakes, as well, even if they are incorrect. If there is an exclamation point or question mark inside your quote, keep it inside the quotation marks. Most quotes use the author's last name or a combination of the first and last name. Typically, in the Chicago style, you'd place the author's full name, the title of the source, publisher, and the page numbers in a footnote. This is how you'd quote a source in MLA format.

You can include the author's last name and the page number together in a parenthetical citation, or you can mention one in your writing and the other in a parenthetical citation.

This is APA format. The author's last name and year must be included together in the parentheses, or you can mention the name of the author in your writing and put just the year in parentheses afterwards. To cite a quotation in your paper using the Chicago style of formatting, add a footnote number immediately after the ending quotation mark not inside the quotes.

Pair with a matching citation at the bottom of the page. Use a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper to list full publishing information on each quoted source.

You need a "Works Cited" page that provides additional information for each source. It may be helpful to add sources to this page as you use them in your text so you don't accidentally miss one!

It is not enough to just cite the source within the text; you also need to include it on the "Works Cited" page. The information on this page typically includes the author, title, publisher, and publishing date.

Featured Articles Research Papers. Citaten vermelden in een onderzoeksverslag. Quote Help Sample Short Quotes. Understand how to use dropped quotes. Dropped quotes are partial phrases taken from the middle of a piece of text.

Dropped quotes are comprised of only a few words and give no information about the speaker. These must always be introduced within a sentence, and cannot comprise a complete sentence on their own. Use a complete sentence to incorporate a dropped quote.

Use a short phrase to incorporate a dropped quote: Understand how to use full sentence quotes. As the name implies, full sentence quotes are created by quoting complete sentences that take up less than 4 lines. Although these are complete sentences, they cannot be used as stand-alone sentences in your paper. Introduce them with an additional complete sentence or a signal phrase. Use a complete sentence to introduce a full sentence quote. Use a signal phrase to introduce your full sentence quote.

Understand how to use block quotes. Block quotes are multiple sentences quoted directly from a source which take up more than 4 lines in your paper, or no more than 3 if you are quoting verse. Incorporate a block quote by adding a complete line space between your own content and the quote, and offsetting it by indenting the entire quote to the right a single time. Introduce your block quote with a colon. Block quotes do not use quotation marks.

Add the in-text parenthetical citation after the period at the end of the quote, though. Simply add another line break and begin writing along the left margin with no indent. Understand how to use indirect quotes. Indirect quoting, or paraphrasing, is when you use a sentence from a source but change the wording slightly into your own words. Change the structure of the sentence by moving clauses around.

Aim to change at least half of the sentence into a new structure, but also make sure that the grammar is correct and the meaning of the sentence is still clear. You can use a thesaurus to exchange words with synonyms. Paraphrasing should only be done if you are certain that you understand the content you are copying. Method 1 Quiz What should you do when paraphrasing quotes? Change at least 50 percent of the sentence.

Use a thesaurus to replace words with synonyms. Understand the content you want to paraphrase. Don't look at the quote while paraphrasing. All of the above. Know where to place commas and periods. To use a comma, you might structure the quote with in sentence like this: To use a period, you might structure the quote like this: Know where to place exclamation points and question marks. Often both the signal and the assertion appear in a single introductory statement, as in the example below.

Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the quotation smoothly to the introductory statement. Ross , in her study of poor and working-class mothers in London from [ signal ], makes it clear that economic status to a large extent determined the meaning of motherhood [ assertion ].

Among this population [ connection ], "To mother was to work for and organize household subsistence" p. Illness was rarely a routine matter in the nineteenth century [assertion]. As [ connection ] Ross observes [ signal ], "Maternal thinking about children's health revolved around the possibility of a child's maiming or death" p.

Incorporate short direct prose quotations into the text of your paper and enclose them in double quotation marks:. According to Jonathan Clarke, "Professional diplomats often say that trying to think diplomatically about foreign policy is a waste of time. Begin longer quotations for instance, in the APA system, 40 words or more on a new line and indent the entire quotation i. Rules about the minimum length of block quotations, how many spaces to indent, and whether to single- or double-space extended quotations vary with different documentation systems; check the guidelines for the system you're using.

More than 3 lines of poetry should be indented. As with any extended indented quotation, do not use quotation marks unless you need to indicate a quotation within your quotation. With short quotations, place citations outside of closing quotation marks, followed by sentence punctuation period, question mark, comma, semi-colon, colon:. Remember, the process is the important part.

Before we begin, keep the following terms in mind:. This is what you want to avoid. Plagiarism means using someone else's work and claiming it as your own. In reality it is a crime. Plagiarism can occur on purpose as well as by accident, either way it is wrong and must be avoided.

If you plagiarize by accident the same penalties apply. The way we avoid plagiarism is by citing sources. After the paper is written and the sources have been cited then we must create a works cited page.

If the proper format for citing sources and the works cited page is followed then plagiarism can be avoided. Check with your teacher to see if this format is acceptable in your school. Sources in these formats use the in line citation format. What this means is that anytime you cite a source, whether it be a direct quote or a paraphrase you must then insert an in line citation into the text of the paper.

Typically the in line citation would consist of the authors last name followed by the page number with the entire citation in brackets. Here is an example: Winthrop 24 The sentence period comes after the citation. More is to follow on proper in line citation format after this introduction. A paraphrase is an important part of writing a paper. Simply put the paraphrase is when you read another authors work and put it into your own words.

It is also considered paraphrasing when you use statistics and research from another source. This is the most common citation in a paper. Proper paraphrasing is an art. This does not mean changing a few words around. It means taking the authors ideas, summarizing them into your own words and then using them. Of course you must cite every paraphrase with an in line citation. Paraphrases are mostly used to summarize paragraphs and main themes.

Paraphrases are also used to cite statistics and other information. More is to follow on citing the paraphrase. A direct quote is when you use another persons words directly in your paper. Knowing when to use a direct quote is important.

Do not quote everything you want to say. Most things should be paraphrased. Use a direct quote when you want the reader to read an important historical line or it is something someone said that is important. Use direct quotes sparingly, there should only be a few in the paper and they better be good ones. The key difference in citing a direct quote is that you must put quotation marks around the sentence and then cite at the end.

More information on direct quotes and direct quotes over four lines to follow. This is the last page of your paper where you list, using the format shown below, all the books, articles, web sites, SIRS articles, magazines articles, etc.

This must be done in the proper format. Proper format will be outlined in the following pages. While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building.

Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a story building. How much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise than worlds tallest building, the Sears Tower, is unknown. The design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over stories Bachman The writer never uses the exact words of the author therefore there is no need to use quotation marks.

The writer summarizes, uses his or her own words and then cites the source at the end. Sometimes a paraphrase will be large and must be broken up.

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Save direct quotations for brilliant comments, controversial statements, certain statistics, and personal testimony that you believe will strengthen your argument. If a quotation is long, or if you can say it better or more concisely, paraphrase it (restate it in your own words). Remember, you must indicate a source even when paraphrasing.

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Writers use quotes for several reasons: to assert facts; as a voice that adds authority or color to an assertion being made; and most importantly, to avoid plagiarism. Below are three different quotation formats and guidelines to follow when using them.

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Step 12 Research Paper Quotes and Citations (MLA) The APA style is the method for formatting a paper, including quotations, and citing sources, that has been provided and recognized by the American Psychological Association. APA is the style that is normally used is a variety of social sciences and humanities fields, such as psychology and sociology. Quotations play a vital role in your research paper. But knowing how to use quotes appropriately is almost as important as using them in the first place. An incorrectly placed quote or too many quotes at once can lessen the impact.

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Using Quotations in Research Papers The use, then, of words, is to be sensible marks of ideas; and the ideas they stand for are their proper and immediate signification. INTEGRATING QUOTES AND PARAPHRASES IN RESEARCH PAPERS. If you lack personal experience in a subject, you will turn to sources to learn what you need to.