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Phenomenology (architecture)

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❶It can pull the focus back still further and look at how scientific research itself is contextualized, in an environment full of ethical and political motivations and power relations.

Unstructured Interviewing

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Through research funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Max van Manen has been involved in ongoing inquiry in phenomenology and pedagogy. The following paragraphs describe a chronology of inquiry by sequentially focusing on the phenomenological research method, the meaning of the pedagogical relation, pedagogical tact, the pedagogy of self-identity in interpersonal relations, the pedagogy of recognition, and the meaning of writing in qualitative research.

The development of the phenomenological research method: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. In the explication of this qualitative methodology a bridge was built between the more pragmatic North American approach to research and the more interpretive West European traditions.

What makes the North American approach more pragmatic is that it is methods-driven; in contrast, the continental tradition largely left the methodological procedures implicit.

Ongoing methodological issues continue to be discussed and developed in van Manen , , a, b, a, , b, , He has developed an area of research that simply did not exist in North American educational studies before his contributions.

In this regard, his research is considered to be original and innovative, and Dr van Manen, himself, to be a pioneer in introducing phenomenological methodology into the field of educational research. Elaboration of the meaning of the pedagogical relation and pedagogical tact: This phase has been developed alongside the later stages of Phase 1.

The work of Phase 2 has resulted in various articles, translations, presentations, and books for which van Manen received the University of Alberta McCalla Research Professor Award. Canada Council funding allowed the completion of the book The Tact of Teaching: The Meaning of Pedagogical Thoughtfulness. The project involved applying the human science model developed in phase 1, and the concept of pedagogical reflections and pedagogical thoughtfulness and pedagogical tact of phase 2, to an integrated research-writing project engaging practitioners at various levels of educational institutions.

The research model closely links the practice of research including data collecting, interpretation of protocols, and textual construction with the practice of writing. This work resulted in several research papers and a newly edited publication of Researching Lived Experience. Pedagogical studies of relational intimacy, secrecy, recognition, and identity: The interest in identity and inwardness through the process of writing was initially studied through the phenomena of childhood secrecy and the experience of recognition, for which an SSHRC research grant was received in Both secrecy and recognition are theoretically and experientially associated with identity and self-consciousness.

This research involved hundreds of written recollections of the experience of early childhood secrecy and recognition. It resulted in several research papers on the themes of identity in the experience of secrecy and recognition. A book was completed for Teachers College Press: Intimacy, Privacy, and Self Reconsidered in collaboration with B.

The phenomenology of writing: This focus on the writing dimension of research is further described in the book Writing in the Dark: Phenomenological Studies in Interpretive Inquiry.

The 14 research papers exemplify the writing practice of qualitative inquiry. Van Manen became again convinced of the importance of experiential and interpretive writing as a method for gaining pedagogical knowledge and understanding during the research of his most recent SSHRC project on the pedagogical task of teaching. He had the opportunity to experiment with writing while working with some professional groups in education, psychology, and the health sciences.

Three groups of about 25 teachers were led to reflect through writing workshop activities on pedagogical dimensions of teaching such as examination pressure, recognizing students, scarce space for homework in Hong Kong high rise apartments. This work was partially shared by means of web board and list serve participation. Thus Max van Manen became increasingly interested in the problem of communicating by writing online with students learning in seminar contexts.

It is the most prestigious research award granted at the University of Alberta. Pedagogy and online writing: As Max was involved in my phenomenology of writing research, he became increasingly aware that research on qualitative writing has special significance in online environments.

So this phase 5 research examined the phenomenon of online writing, not necessarily to advance the cause of online writing but ultimately to better understand the experience of writing itself. Aided by doctoral students who have expertise in online technologies we conducted experimental online international seminars, with participating graduate students and university professors from a dozen countries all over the world.

We were especially interested in the question how ordinary face-to-face seminars differ experientially from seminars that are conducted in cyber-space. A crucial question concerned the very nature of writing itself: The pedagogy of online relation: The next research proposal focused on the emergence of relation in seminar settings through writing-online. Consequently, technology can be a useful part of direct observation.

For instance, one can videotape the phenomenon or observe from behind one-way mirrors. Third, direct observation tends to be more focused than participant observation. The researcher is observing certain sampled situations or people rather than trying to become immersed in the entire context.

Finally, direct observation tends not to take as long as participant observation. For instance, one might observe child-mother interactions under specific circumstances in a laboratory setting from behind a one-way mirror, looking especially for the nonverbal cues being used.

Unstructured interviewing involves direct interaction between the researcher and a respondent or group. It differs from traditional structured interviewing in several important ways.

First, although the researcher may have some initial guiding questions or core concepts to ask about, there is no formal structured instrument or protocol. Second, the interviewer is free to move the conversation in any direction of interest that may come up. Consequently, unstructured interviewing is particularly useful for exploring a topic broadly.

However, there is a price for this lack of structure. Because each interview tends to be unique with no predetermined set of questions asked of all respondents, it is usually more difficult to analyze unstructured interview data, especially when synthesizing across respondents. A case study is an intensive study of a specific individual or specific context.

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Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and a philosophical movement it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl and was later expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and Munich in Germany.

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Research Methodology chapter describes research methods, approaches and designs in detail highlighting those used throughout the study, justifying my choice through describing advantages and disadvantages of each approach and design taking into account their practical applicability to our research.

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